Between 1788 and 1868 more than 162,000 convicts were transported to Australia. … The convicts were transported as punishment for crimes committed in Britain and Ireland. In Australia their lives were hard as they helped build the young colony.
What did convicts do in Australia?
Convicts were a source of labour to build roads, bridges, courthouses, hospitals and other public buildings, or to work on government farms, while educated convicts may have been given jobs such as record-keeping for the government administration. Female convicts, on the other hand, were generally employed as domestic …
Why did people come to Australia in 1788?
The First Fleet of British ships arrived at Botany Bay in January 1788 to establish a penal colony, the first colony on the Australian mainland. In the century that followed, the British established other colonies on the continent, and European explorers ventured into its interior.
What crimes sent convicts to Australia?
Those who were taken to Australia had committed a range of different crimes including theft, assault, robbery and fraud. As part of their punishment they were sentenced to penal transportation for seven years, fourteen years or even life, despite the crimes that they had committed being generally low-grade.
Why did convicts stop being sent to Australia?
Between 1788 and 1868, about 162,000 convicts were transported from Britain and Ireland to various penal colonies in Australia. … Penal transportation to Australia peaked in the 1830s and dropped off significantly in the following decade, as protests against the convict system intensified throughout the colonies.
How did convicts help shape Australia?
Exported: Among those sent to Australia were the Luddites, textile workers who broke machinery and burned mills to protest against factory conditions. Many convicts worked on government farms, growing food for the new settlement. Others were assigned to land owners.
What happened on 26th January?
Observed annually on 26 January, it marks the 1788 landing of the First Fleet at Sydney Cove and raising of the Union Flag by Arthur Phillip following days of exploration of Port Jackson in New South Wales. …
Who was the first white person born in Australia?
On 25th January 1788 a child was recorded to have been born to a “Mrs. Whittle” between Botany Bay and Port Jackson, becoming the first European to be born in Australia. However the only person similarly named as part of the fleet’s company was a man, Edward Whitton.
When did the first white man come to Australia?
While Indigenous Australians have inhabited the continent for tens of thousands of years, and traded with nearby islanders, the first documented landing on Australia by a European was in 1606. The Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon landed on the western side of Cape York Peninsula and charted about 300 km of coastline.
What did female convicts do?
Convict women were employed in domestic service, washing and on government farms, and were expected to find their own food and lodging. Punishment for those who transgressed was humiliating and public. Exile itself was considered a catalyst for reform.
How were female convicts treated in Australia?
Despite the belief that convict women during the transportation period were all prostitutes, no women were transported for that offence. The majority of women sent to Australia were convicted for what would now be considered minor offences (such as petty theft), most did not receive sentences of more than seven years.
Why did Britain send convicts to America?
Railton’s in-depth research indicates that many British convicts traveled to their destination on uncomfortable, rat-infested cargo ships. Crimes that attracted banishment were ones against society, such as theft and deception. The most common crime committed by British convicts shipped to America was theft.
Why did convict transportation come to an end?
Others felt that convicts could be dangerous and were giving Australia a bad reputation as a place full of criminals. In 1837 the British Government set up an inquiry into penal transportation. … Transportation to New South Wales ended in 1840 and transportation to Van Diemen’s Land ended in 1853.
What problems did convicts experience after they arrived in Australia?
For newly arrived convicts, the environment of Sydney was strange and very different to what they were used to. During summer, days of unbearable heat were often followed by ferocious thunderstorms and torrential rain.