It wasn’t the ideal choice because the place had only been glimpsed once and the 15,000 mile voyage would take more than 8 months. Nevertheless, between 1788 and 1868 165,000 British and Irish convicts made the arduous journey to an unknown land we now call Australia.
How long did it take to get to Australia on a convict ship?
However, not all convict transportation was so successful. The convict ship Mountstuart Elphinstone carried nearly 1,700 convicts to Sydney and Hobart, as well as emigrants to Australia, in a trading life of almost 50 years. She took between three and five months to make each voyage.
How long was the journey for transported criminals?
The usual period of transportation was 14 years for convicts receiving conditional pardons from death sentences or seven years for lesser offences. The American Revolution of 1776 meant that transportation to North America was no longer possible.
How many convicts died on the trip to Australia?
During the period of transportation, nearly 2000 convicts died during the journey, usually from illnesses such as cholera due to the cramped and unhygienic conditions, where space was so limited that inmates were not even able to stand up.
How many convict ships went to Australia?
From January 1788, when the First Fleet of convicts arrived at Botany Bay, to the end of convict transportation 80 years later, over 160,000 convicts were transported to Australia.
What was Australia called in 1788?
After the Dutch era
Cook first named the land New Wales, but revised it to New South Wales. With the establishment of a settlement at Sydney in 1788, the British solidified its claim to the eastern part of Australia, now officially called New South Wales.
How long did were convicts sentenced to serve?
Convicts were usually given sentences of transportation for seven, 14 years or life. Some convicts in the 1830s received ten-year sentences. About one quarter of the convicts were sentenced to ‘the term of their natural lives’, and a proportion of these had reprieves from the death sentence.
When did the last convict ship arrive in Australia?
The Hougoumont, the last ship to take convicts from the UK to Australia, docked in Fremantle, Western Australia, on January 9, 1868 – 150 years ago. It brought an end to a process which deposited about 168,000 convicted prisoners in Australia after it began in 1788.
What did 15 years transportation mean?
Penal transportation or transportation was the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony, for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination.
Who was the youngest convict sent to Australia?
John Hudson, described as ‘sometimes a chimney sweeper’, was the youngest known convict to sail with the First Fleet. Voyaging on board the Friendship to NSW, the boy thief was 13 years old on arrival at Sydney Cove. He was only nine when first sentenced.
Who was the most famous convict?
Top Five Famous Convicts transported to Australia
- Francis Greenway. Francis Greenway arrived in Sydney in 1814. …
- Mary Wade. The youngest ever convict to be transported to Australia at the age of 11. …
- John ‘Red’ Kelly. …
- Mary Bryant. …
- Frank the Poet.
What did female convicts do?
Convict women were employed in domestic service, washing and on government farms, and were expected to find their own food and lodging. Punishment for those who transgressed was humiliating and public. Exile itself was considered a catalyst for reform.
What were the 19 crimes that sent you to Australia?
The crimes that make up 19 Crimes include:
- Grand Larceny, theft above the value of one shilling.
- Petty Larceny, theft under one shilling.
- Buying or receiving stolen goods, jewels, and plate…
- Stealing lead, iron, or copper, or buying or receiving.
- Impersonating an Egyptian.
- Stealing from furnished lodgings.
Did any convict ships sink?
Loss of life due to accident or natural disaster was also rare, although there were four serious shipwrecks concerning convict ships to Australia – Amphitrite on the coast of France, George III on the south-east coast of Tasmania, Neva off King Island in Bass Strait and Waterloo in Table Bay, South Africa.