Prisons were constructed to conceal the punishment of criminals behind closed doors. … During the convict era punishments included hard labour in leg irons, solitary confinement, floggings and restricted diets. Apart from leg irons, these punishments continued well into the 1900s at Fremantle Prison.
How were convicts punished in Australia?
In colonial Australia, there were three main punishments for male convicts; the wheel, irons and floggings. Often these were inflicted in ways that suggested that justice, rehabilitation, and societal protection were not important considerations.
What punishments did convicts have?
Flogging. As punishment for even more serious crimes, or for repeated misbehaviour, a convict could also be whipped, or ‘flogged’, with a cat-o’-nine-tails. However, the Superintendent could not order this punishment: it had to be approved by a magistrate of the court, or by the Governor.
What happened when prisoners were sent to Australia?
If a convict was well behaved, the convict could be given a ticket of leave, granting some freedom. At the end of the convict’s sentence, seven years in most cases, the convict was issued with a Certificate of Freedom. He was then free to become a settler or to return to England.
How did the guards treat the convicts?
The guards were very much angered and frustrated because the prisoners also began to taunt and curse them. … They got a fire extinguisher which shot a stream of skin-chilling carbon dioxide, and they forced the prisoners away from the doors.
How were female convicts treated in Australia?
Despite the belief that convict women during the transportation period were all prostitutes, no women were transported for that offence. The majority of women sent to Australia were convicted for what would now be considered minor offences (such as petty theft), most did not receive sentences of more than seven years.
How did convicts shape Australia?
Research from Professor Michael Quinlan from the University of NSW shows that convicts were forming “embryonic, primitive trade unions” in the early 19th century. Exported: Among those sent to Australia were the Luddites, textile workers who broke machinery and burned mills to protest against factory conditions.
What did female convicts do?
Convict women were employed in domestic service, washing and on government farms, and were expected to find their own food and lodging. Punishment for those who transgressed was humiliating and public. Exile itself was considered a catalyst for reform.
What did child convicts do in Australia?
The majority of convict or orphaned boys aged between 9 and 18 worked as labourers and herdsmen assigned to settlers, as they were usually too small for the rough work of clearing the land, quarrying stone and building roads.
Why were female convicts given less rations?
Female convicts and marine wives received 2/3 of male convict ration. In order that they could tend their own gardens, convicts did not have to work on Saturday afternoons. This means a reduction of 12lb for every 100lb of beef and 8lb for every 100lb of pork.
Who was the most famous convict?
Top Five Famous Convicts transported to Australia
- Francis Greenway. Francis Greenway arrived in Sydney in 1814. …
- Mary Wade. The youngest ever convict to be transported to Australia at the age of 11. …
- John ‘Red’ Kelly. …
- Mary Bryant. …
- Frank the Poet.
What crimes did convicts commit to get sent to Australia?
Those who were taken to Australia had committed a range of different crimes including theft, assault, robbery and fraud. As part of their punishment they were sentenced to penal transportation for seven years, fourteen years or even life, despite the crimes that they had committed being generally low-grade.
When did the last convicts arrive in Australia?
On 9 January 1868 the convict transport Hougoumont arrived at the port of Fremantle. On board were 269 convicts, the last to be sent to Western Australia. The ship’s arrival marked the end of 80 years of continuous penal transportation to the Australian continent.
What did female convicts wear?
The women wore clothes such as ‘slops’ in blue or brown serge, or a stuff gown, white apron and straw bonnet for Sunday with a jacket and a coarse apron for weekdays. Children remained with their mothers at the Factory until the age of four, at which time they were placed in Orphan Schools.
Who was the youngest convict sent to Australia?
John Hudson, described as ‘sometimes a chimney sweeper’, was the youngest known convict to sail with the First Fleet. Voyaging on board the Friendship to NSW, the boy thief was 13 years old on arrival at Sydney Cove. He was only nine when first sentenced.
What were convicts not allowed to do?
Gambling was forbidden at the Barracks, and convicts caught gambling could end up in a solitary confinement cell. However, despite the threat of punishment, the men tried their luck with games like ‘chuck penny’ or ‘pitch and toss’. Sometimes they played for large amounts of money or items of value.